Fair dealing in Canada, as defined in the Canadian Copyright Act, is use of material with attribution for the pupose of research, private study, education, parody, satire, criticism, review, and/or news reporting.
When determining what is "fair", the precedent setting user right case in 2004 CCH Canadian Ltd. v. the Law Society of Upper Canada outlined six principles to consider:
1) the purpose of the copying (research? private study? criticism? commercial purposes? educational use? parody or satire?)
2) the character of the copying (is the plan to make a single copy? multiple copies? will the copy be destroyed when its use is completed?)
3) the amount of the work to be copied and the importance of the work (will the copying be a significant part of the work?)
4) alternatives to the work to be copied (is there a non-copyrighted equivalent available?)
5) the nature of the work (is it published? unpublished? confidential?)
6) the effect of the copying on the work (will it compete with the market of the original work?)
For added clarification, and as noted in CAUT Guidelines for the Use of Copyrighted Material (February 2013):
Copying more than 10% of a work MAY be fair depending on the circumstances (e.g., copying is less likely to be fair the greater the percentage of the entire work is composed of the following parts), but generally it is likely fair to:
1. copy an entire chapter from a book;
2. copy an entire article from a periodical;
3. copy an entire short story, play, poem or essay from a book or periodical;
4. copy an entire entry from an encyclopedia, dictionary, annotated bibliography, or similar reference book;
5. copy an entire reproduction of an artisitc work from a book or periodical; and
6. copy a single musical score from a book or periodical.